The last sentence of every paragraph should be either:
- a summary (e.g. "In summary...")
- a link (e.g. "The next paragraph...")
- both (e.g. "In summary....The next paragraph...")
For 5 paragraph essays
When do I summarize or link?
Summarize AND link everything except
- the last body paragraph
- No summary (conclusions are a summary).
- No link (nothing comes after a conclusion)
- Instead, for your last sentence write a final comment (see write a conclusion paragraph)
- No summary (too many different parts)
- Link only
Last paragraph before conclusion
- (probably your paragraph C - "Solutions")
- No link (it's strange)
- Summary only
Every other paragraph
Examples for first-year essays
1) Link at end of Description (A)
- The next paragraph looks at some problems production of Tantalum is causing
- The next paragraph looks at some of the problems the Sumatran Orangutan is facing
2) Summary-Link at end of Problems (B)
- In summary, there are three problems - 1, 2, and 3 - of which the most serious is 3. The next paragraph looks at some possible solutions for these problems.
- In summary, there are three reasons that the Sumatran Orangutan is becoming endangered - 1, 2, and 3 - of which the most serious threat is 3. The next paragraph looks at some possible solutions for these problems.
- In summary, there are three ways in which which Tantalum production is causing harm to people and the environment - 1, 2, and 3 - of which the most serious is 3. The next paragraph looks at three NGOs which are trying to improve the situation.
3) Summary for Solutions (C)
- In summary, there are three solutions - 1, 2, and 3 - of which the most useful is 3.
- In summary, although there are a number of solutions being attempted - including 1, 2, and 3 - none of them are currently very effective.
- In summary, of the three NGOs working on this issue - 1, 2, and 3 - only 3 is making any real progress.
Rules for sectional essays
Once you have more than 5 paragraphs, the rules change.
See write a sectional essay for details
If you DO NOT use a section conclusion paragraph
The last three sentences of the last paragraph in the section:
- summarize the last paragraph in the section
- summarize the section
- link to the next SECTION, not the next paragraph
- don't link into the conclusion section
"In summary, the problem of heavy metal pollution is serious, both for miners and people living near the mine. Overall, this section has shown that production of X causes a number of issues - A, B, and C - of which the most effective is C. However, the next paragraph examines some possible solutions to these issues"
If you DO use a section conclusion paragraph
Body paragraphs are normal
Section Conclusion paragraphs should have:
- Topic sentence for section conclusion e.g. "In summary, this section looked at..."
- Summary of each paragraph in the section (1-3 sentences)
- Final Comment for section (optional)
- Link to next SECTION.
|In summary, Scotland is X. ||In the next section I will describe Ireland.|
|Scotland is cold, but how about Ireland? ||Next, this essay describes...|
|In my next essay, ||I plan to look at Wales and Ireland.|
|This chapter summarised literature on X ||The next chapter describes the methods ...|