Arrangement - write a paragraph topic sentence

Malc Prentice

Safe options: For first year essays

Formal, safe, boring options

Like the essays in this class, you can just use the thesis statement pattern for topic sentences. This works for scientific reports, formal third person essays.

Name your section Main Idea Verb Topic phrase Keywords
This paragraph clarifies what X means for Y , in terms of 1, 2, and 3
This paragraph explores X in detail , in terms of 1, 2, and 3
This paragraph describes the link between X and Y
This paragraph outlines how X works
This paragraph investigates how X is made in three stages - 1, 2, and 3.
This paragraph examines the process of Xing your
This paragraph summarizes the impact of X on Y
This paragraph reviews how X can cause Y
This paragraph looks at some problems caused by X
This paragraph argues that the best way to X is for three reasons - 1, 2, and 3.
proposes that the best X is Y
suggests that X is better than Y
VERB+ why X should Y
compares X and Y
contrasts X with Y

Formal, difficult, but less boring options

Follow these rules

1) It must be the first sentence

2) It must link to the thesis

3) Link to the other paragraphs (not always, but often)

4) Say what you want to say about the topic.

5) This is still formal academic English - follow academic conventions

Examples from academic sources

1) Education

A further key Japanese cultural belief is that learners need to be persistent in their efforts to master a language, or indeed any skill.

This is an ARGUMENT paragraph, giving evidence to support the idea the main idea (learners need to be persistent)

2) Engineering

Green roofs have a potential for providing an attractive green space in downtown areas where the green space on the ground is limited or simply non-existing.

This is an ARGUMENT paragraph, giving evidence to support the main idea (roofs have potential in some areas)

This review paper addressed the role of vegetated roofs in urban drainage considering both management of water quantity and quality with related aspects.

This is a TS for FIRST paragraph of a CONCLUSION section in a formal article. It follows the formal pattern (above)

The review indicates clearly that there is a need of more research into green roof performance in urban environment.

This is a TS for FINAL paragraph of a CONCLUSION section in a formal article. It follows the formal pattern (above)

3) Software Engineering

Information visualization (Spence, 2001) is a branch of computer graphics and user interface which is concerned with the presentation of interactive or animated digital images so that users can understand data.

This is a TS for a DEFINITION paragraph in the LITERATURE REVIEW section of a research article. The rest of the paragraph will give more detail.

We can see in Figure 6 that there are three clusters of students.

This is a TS for a DESCRIPTION paragraph in the RESULTS section of a research article.

3) Other

We have already highlighted that the sites we used for advertising the survey may have led us to a biased sample

This is a topic sentence for a LIMITATIONS paragraph in the CONCLUSION section of the FOREWORD of a report.