CEFR - Coherence and cohesion
From Council of Europe CEFR 2018 companion version with new descriptors: (link)
CEFR Category - Pragmatic
CEFR Subategory - Competence
- Can create coherent and cohesive text making full and appropriate use of a variety of organisational patterns and a wide range of cohesive devices.
- Can produce clear, smoothly flowing, well-structured speech, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices. Can produce well-organised, coherent text, using a variety of cohesive devices and organisational patterns.
- Can use a variety of linking words efficiently to mark clearly the relationships between ideas.
- Can use a limited number of cohesive devices to link his/her utterances into clear, coherent discourse. Though there may be some jumpiness in a long contribution. Can produce text that is generally well-organised and coherent, using a range of linking words and cohesive devices. Can structure longer texts in clear, logical paragraphs
- Can introduce a counter-argument in a simple discursive text (e.g. with however).
- Can link a series of shorter, discrete simple elements into a connected, linear sequence of points. Can form longer sentences and link them together using a limited number of cohesive devices, e.g. in a story. Can make simple, logical paragraph breaks in a longer text.
- Can use the most frequently occurring connectors to link simple sentences in order to tell a story or describe something as a simple list of points.
- Can link groups of words with simple connectors like and, but and because.
- Can link words or groups of words with very basic linear connectors like 'and' or 'then'.