CEFR - Identifying cues and inferring - spoken or written
From Council of Europe CEFR 2018 companion version with new descriptors: (link)
CEFR Category - Reception
CEFR Subategory - Strategies
- No descriptors available; see C1
- Is skilled at using contextual, grammatical and lexical cues to infer attitude, mood and intentions and anticipate what will come next.
- Can use a variety of strategies to achieve comprehension, including listening for main points; checking comprehension by using contextual clues.
- Can exploit different types of connectors (numerical, temporal, logical) and the role of key paragraphs in the overall organisation, in order to better understand the argumentation in a text. Can extrapolate the meaning of a section of a text by taking into account the text as a whole. Can identify unfamiliar words from the context on topics related to his/her field and interests. Can extrapolate the meaning of occasional unknown words from the context and deduce sentence meaning provided the topic discussed is familiar. Can make basic inferences or predictions about text content from headings, titles or headlines. Can listen to a short narrative and predict what will happen next. Can follow a line of argument or the sequence of events in a story, by focusing on common logical connectors (e.g. however, because) and temporal connectors (e.g. after that, beforehand). Can deduce the probable meaning of unknown words in a written text by identifying their constituent part (e.g. identifying word roots, lexical elements, suffixes and prefixes).
- Can use an idea of the overall meaning of short texts and utterances on everyday topics of a concrete type to derive the probable meaning of unknown words from the context. Can exploit his/her recognition of known words to deduce the meaning of unfamiliar words in short expressions used in routine everyday contexts. Can exploit format, appearance and typographic features in order to identify the type of text: news story, promotional text, article, textbook, chat or forum etc. Can exploit numbers, dates, names, proper nouns etc.to identify the topic of a text. Can deduce the meaning and function of unknown formulaic expressions from their position in a written text (e.g. at the beginning or end of a letter).
- Can deduce the meaning of an unknown word for a concrete action or object, provided the surrounding text is very simple, and on a familiar everyday subject
- Can deduce the meaning of a word from an accompanying picture or icon.