Break it before punctuation (./-) using SHIFT-ENTER
Watch this: (link)
Bored of "said", "found" and "noted"? Choose another!
See use verbs for citation
If your book cover is written "MY DOG"
If your newspaper is written "JAPAN TIMES" or "japantimes"
As Smith (1999) noted, X is Y (Smith finished writing)
Smith (1999) interviewed 10 JHS students (Smith finished interviewing)
As Smith (1999, p.32) noted, cats do not speak English
As Smith (1999) has noted, X is Y
All research so far has found that X is Y
Data collected in this pilot project has shown X. Next, Y
|Anonymous Articles/Chapters/Web||short title in quotes||("How to park," 2013, April 1)|
|Anonymous Books/Reports (rare)||short title in italics||(How to park, 2013)|
|Organisation is author? Use that.||(JAF, 2013)|
|Anonymous Articles/Chapters/Web||full title in italics|
|Anonymous Books/Reports (rare)||full title in italics|
|Organisation is author?||Organisation name, plus full title in italics|
Title of anonymous article or website in italics. (2013, April 1). Retrieved from http://fake.com/fake.html
Title of anonymous book or report in italics. (2013). Retrieved from http://fake.com/fake.html
JAF. (2013). Title of article where organisation is author. Retrieved from http://fake.com/fake.html
According to Author (n.d), X. Author (n.d.) notes that X
Give the DATE YOU DOWNLOADED IT.
Author, P. (n.d.). Title of the Page. Retrieved October 8, 2013, from http://fakewebsiteaddress.com/r/3/asdf.html
Direct quotes (" ") from a book need the page number
Separate with semicolons 1; 2; 3; 4
|Use p for one page||Smith (2010, p. 23)|
|Use pp for multiple pages||Smith (2010, pp. 25-26)|
|If no pages, use shortened subheading||(Smith, 2010, "Participants")|
|If no pages or subheading, use paragraph number||(Smith, 2010, para. 5)|
|Journal articles||yes - beginning and end of article|
|Newspaper articles||yes - page(s) and section if needed|
|Edited book chapter||yes - beginning and end of chapter|
Smith, M. (2015, May 5). Article title. Journal of Something in Title Case and Italics, 23(3), 221-256.
Smith, M. (2015, May 5). Article title. Title or Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, p. 4.
Smith, M. (2015, May 5). Chapter title. In A. Editor and B. Editor (Eds.), Title of Edited Book in Title Case and Italics (221-256). City: Publisher.
|Use "&" INSIDE brackets.||English is great (Smith, Suzuki, & Jones, 2010).|
|Use "and" OUTSIDE brackets||Smith, Suzuki, and Jones (2010) say that English is great.|
|Always use "&"||Smith, M., Suzuki, K., & Jones. P. (2010). English. Tokyo: Kodansha.|
|First time||(United Nations High Commision for Refugees [UNHCR], 2000)|
|Second time||(UNHCR, 2000)|
Aardvark, A. (2012).
Bananas are great. (2009, April 17).
Prentice, M. (2003a).
Prentice, M. (2003b).
Prentice, M. (2004).
UNHCR. (n.d. a)
UNHCR. (n.d. b)
UNHCR. (n.d. c)
Zod, G. (1999).
Up to 7 authors = normal way
If >7 authors, list the FIRST SIX authors, three dots, and the LAST author. No "&".First, F., Second, S., Third, T, Fourth, F., Fifth, F., Sixth, S., ... Last, L. (2013).
|2 authors||cite both EVERY TIME||(First & Second, 2013)|
|3-5 authors||cite in normal way the FIRST TIME||(First, Second, Third, Fourth, & Fifth, 2013)|
|3-5 authors||use short "et al." version SECOND TIME ONWARDS||(First et al., 2013)|
|6+ authors||use short version EVERY TIME||(First et al., 2013)|
Smith, J. (2013). Book Title (3rd ed.). Oxford: OUP.
This is why you put the "retrieved" date on website references.
Imagine you wanted to cite the front page of this website: (link)
However, the web page is down, or gone, or changed (which happens a lot with the front page of websites). If you give the date, then
1) Waybackmachine has an archive: (link)
2) Google Cache also has a version: (link) &cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=jp
That way people can use the cache or the wayback machine to access it.
There's a lot I don't know how to do. If this answer isn't above, do this: