Invention - find good sources
When you are looking for sources, try this:
1) Read in your language first and find the main idea keywords
- Read the Japanese Wikipedia page
- Google the topic in Japanese
2) Translate the main idea keywords into English.
|Endangered Animals ||Pollution, hunting, poaching, global warming, bycatch Wildlife preserves, farmer compensation, CITES, ban on hunting|
|Ethical Consumption ||Air/Water/Soil pollution, Reduce, Re-use, Recycle, boycott, product labelling, |
Cost, weight, size, durability, battery time, sustainability, screen size, safety,
3) Now search for those keywords for your specific context
- e.g. Galapagos penguin warming ocean
- e.g. Syrian Refugee destruction of hospitals
- English Google search (link)
- Japanese Google search (link)
- News Google Search (link)
- Remember you can
- Limit it to governmental sites ("Galapagos penguin site:gov" or "site:.gov.jp"
- Limit it to university sites ("Galapagos penguin global warming site:ac.jp" or "site:ac.jp")
- Limit it to recent articles using Search Tools
- Limit it to exact matches with quotees "". See the difference this makes:
- amazon "ngo japan"
- "amazon ngo" japan
More Academic searches
- Google Scholar (link) (has most but not all articles)
- Find an important source - the classic source everyone uses.
- Click "Cited by"
- CiNii (Japanese university articles) (link)
- Eric (link)
- Ethos (British Dissertations) (link)
- ARDR (Japanese dissertations) (link)
- Reading lists prepared by expert on topic: e.g. (link)
- Browse top journals on your topic: (link)
Search a specific newspaper
- To get academic PDFs
- You might need to be AT UNIVERSITY (or use a VPN)
- If you're lucky, Google Scholar might find free copies on other websites.
- TO get books
- Check your own library: (link)
- Download a sample chapter from Google Books or Amazon Kindle
- Find copies in nearby libraries (some let visitors borrow): (link)
4) Save the good sources
- You probably found too much.
- Journals: Read the abstracts. Only download and read references that are useful for you.
- News etc: Skim it quickly before you read.
- Save the PDF (or PRINT the web page as PDF)
- It's easier to take notes on a PDF
- If the original article is moved,you still have it
6) Once you've found a good source, find the sources that article uses. Read those!
- Follow links at the bottom of the Wikipedia article
- For academic sources, use Google Scholar
- Click "cited by" (e.g. " 引用元") or related article (関連記事)
choose popular ones - if older article shave few citations, they're not important
"引用元 6893", not "引用元 1"
- It might not be available off-campus. Make sure you are on university wifi.
- The main link might not be available. Click see all and look for PDFs.
7) Avoid bad sources
You can READ these for your own information, but don't USE them in your essay:
- Any other kind of Wiki that anyone can edit.
- Any other kind of "pedia", including normal Encyclopaedias.
- Any "question answering" asite
- Quora answers
- Yahoo answers
- Something your teacher said in class (you need to find something they WROTE!)
See check source quality
8) Read it once and annotate
- Before you read, get your brain ready:
- What do you already know?
- What do you think you will learn?
- Skim it
- the section headings and table/figure titles
- the thesis statement
- the conclusion
- While reading:
- Highlight important keywords, points, and quotes.
- Write comments in the margins
9) Read it again and take notes
Take good notes
When you read these notes in the future, it will be easier if you:
- TYPE your notes - they're harder to lose and easier to search
- Word, text files, Excel all popular
- Dissertation? Try Zotero (link)
- Summarize and keep it short
- Don't copy lots of long chunks.
- If you do copy a quote, use quote marks so you remember who wrote it
- Give page numbers if available so you can find facts again easily
- Write a one-sentence summary with citation
- "According to Suzuki (2012), in a METHOD study of SUBJECTS, RESULT"
- Do this well enough, and you can just copy it into your essay later.
Use Note English
Notes should be FAST to write and FAST to read:
- No sentences!
- Important information only
- Remove unnecessary words (a, he, on, in, the, is, are)
- Make it quicker to write and to read:
- "Two thirds of growth at Pepsi came from better foods"
- "two thirds growth Pepsi frm better foods"
- "2/3 growth @ Pepsi = better foods"
Also take notes on:
- YOUR ideas
- Do you agree/disagree?
- Is the conclusion supported?
- Was the research method OK?
- Is there any bias? See check source quality
- Language (e.g. useful words and phrases)
- What the article did NOT tell you (especially if you're preparing for a dissertation project)
- things/ideas you should research next (copy the reference or link)
- things you should you do differently (e.g. research methods)
10) Don't forget the reference