Invention - quote and paraphrase

Malc Prentice

Overview

Option 1: Quote

"Quote" = Use the writer's EXACT words in quotemarks ("")

After this, he "renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton" (Nobel Foundation, 1922)

Only do this for a FEW important quotes.

Usually, you should paraphrase. ALWAYS give a page number if you can

You can make SMALL changes to quotes:

Original "He doesn't like cats, and although they are friendly he doesn't like dogs either"
Shorter "He doesn't like cats ... he doesn't like dogs either"
Fix grammar "He doesn't like cats ... [or] dogs"
Fix pronouns "[Bob] doesn't like cats, ... [or] dogs"

Don't change meanings though. For example "He doesn't like cats, ...he...like[s] dogs" is bad.

Option 2: Paraphrase

Paraphrase - use your own words and grammar

The best way to avoid having to paraphrase is to take notes in Japanese (only keywords in English) then write in English. If directly paraphrasing English, the easiest way is to delete all of the grammar of the sentence, then rearrange the keywords which are left, change some of the words, then finally put the pieces back together using your own grammar.

Looking for new words that mean the same?

Try a thesaurus: (link)

Sometimes you need to change tense if you remove quotes

"Imagination is more important than knowledge" (Einstein, 1931, p. 31)

Einstein (1931) said that imagination was more important than knowledge

Example paraphrases - why are these bad/good?

Original

He renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Bad paraphrase 1 - word/idea order different, words not changed

For political reasons, he renounced his citizenship and took the position of Theoretical Physics Professor at Princeton after he emigrated to America (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Bad paraphrase 2 - words changed but order the same

Einstein gave up his nationality for political motives and moved to the US to occupy the post of Lecturer on Theoretical Physics in Princeton (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Bad paraphrase 3 - meaning has been changed

Einstein hated politicians, so he settled in the Americas and became a Prince (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Good paraphrase - words/idea order/grammar changed

On political grounds, Einstein gave up his citizenship, and having settled in the US became a Professor at Princeton University, teaching Theoretical Physics (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Good summary (paraphrase and shorten). Main ideas only

Most of your paraphrases will probably be summaries.

Einstein went to work at Princeton, having first given up his citizenship (Nobel Foundation, 1922).