Invention - recognise and avoid plagiarism

Definition and warning

Types of plagiarism

There are many kinds of plagiarism. Imagine, for example, that you read a sentence in an article about Einstein and want to use it in your essay.

Original sentence:

"He renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton" (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Type 1 Plagiarism: Copy-paste with no citation and no quotes

The next year, Einstein renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America, where he worked at Princeton.

Type 2 Plagiarism: Copy-paste with quotes but no citation

The next year Einstein "renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America" where he worked at Princeton.

Type 3 Plagiarism: Copy-paste with citation but no quotes

The next year he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America (Nobel Foundation, 1922) where he worked at Princeton.

Type 4 Plagiarism: Copy-paste and just change a few words

He gave up his citizenship for some reasons and emigrated to the US to take the position of teacher of Theoretical Physics at Princeton" (Nobel Foundation, 1922).

Type 5 Plagiarism: Perfectly cited, but too many quotes ("Patchwriting")

Deforestation is also a major source of greenhouse gases. "Approximately a third of all human related greenhouse gas emissions are absorbed by the oceans" (SEE Turtles, n.d.). Last, "WWF works around  the world to establish marine protected areas (MPA) to ensure sea turtles have a safe place to nest, feed and migrate freely" (WWF, n.d.), and there is a treaty about the international business of the endangered wild animals and plants. However, "despite their current protection under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and many national laws, there is still a disturbingly large amount of illegal trade in hawksbill shells and products" (WWF, n.d.).

What is the solution?

See quote and paraphrase for detail. In short:

1) take notes in Japanese, or using only keywords in English

2) write in English sentences in your own words.

3) Don't just copy-paste English sentences then change a few words!

5) Only quote for a reason. Quote ONLY a FEW SHORT and IMPORTANT phrases.

6) Cite once every idea/sentence, not once per paragraph

7) Run it through Grammarly: (link)