Invention - use APA format in the text

Malc Prentice

Use this format in your essay paragraphs, and in your report summary

Don't forget to also use APA format in reference lists

Pattern 1: APA brackets style (recommended)

A book name and year (Smith, 2015)
A newspaper name, year, month+date (Smith, 2015, April 2)
No date? use n.d. (Smith, n.d.)
No author? use the title in quotes
comma goes inside the quotes
("Title," 2015, April 2)
No author or date? Title + n.d. ("Title," n.d.)
2 authors? use "&" (Smith & Jones, 2015)
3-4 authors? use commas + & (Smith, Jones, & Suzuki, 2015)
want to give a page number? use p. (Smith, 2008, p. 56)
2+ sources? use semicolon (;) (Smith, 2003; Ellis, 2004)

Other patterns

Pattern 1 above (brackets) is easiest

However, it is good style to vary your pattern

Remember, though:

Pattern 2: NVF (Name-Verb-Finding)

Name Verb Finding
Smith (1999) stated (that) X is Y
Smith (1999, p. 31) found (that) not all X are Y
Smith and Jones (2001) noted (that) "QUOTE"

Pattern 3: PNVCF (Preposition-Name-Verb-Comma-Finding)

Preposition Name Verb Finding
As Smith (1999) stated , X is Y
Smith (1999, p. 31) found , not all X are Y
Smith and Jones (2001) noted , "QUOTE"

Pattern4: INCF (Intro-Name-Comma-Finding)

Intro Name WITH COMMA Finding
According to Smith (1999), X is Y
In the words of Smith (1999, p. 31), not all X are Y
To quote Smith and Jones (2001), "QUOTE"

Pattern 5: SNVF (Source Type - Name - Verb - Finding)

Source Type Name Verb (that) Finding
An article by Smith (1999) stated (that) X is Y
A report by Smith (1999, p. 31) found (that) not all X are Y
A survey conducted by Smith and Jones (2001) noted (that) "QUOTE"
An interview study by

Pattern 6: NMVF (Name - Method - Verb - Finding)

Source Type Method Verb + that Finding
Smith (1999) , having interviewed 12 university students, said that X is Y
Smith (1999, p. 31) , in a review of the literature on dyslexia, found that not all X are Y
Smith and Jones (2001) , using a survey of 134 High school students, noted that "QUOTE"

Pattern 7: Inserted method

You can also insert methods into other sentences. See use a parenthetical statement

Pattern 8: Block quote

For quotes longer than 40 words

Blockquotes should be

blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah.

I noticed in the Chinese class that when we did have a pause...I was very relieved to have a little break. If I hadn't noticed that, I would have carried on worrying about pauses in my own teaching. (Lowe, 1987, p. 93)

Blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah.

Common mistakes

Comma INSIDE the quotemarks

No title case.

99% of your re

Use "and" outside brackets. Use "&" inside brackets

Newspapers and Websites need full date

If there is no author, use the PAGE title, not the website title!

Only give a few words of the title

Too long: ("The impact of global warming on river dolphins in the Amazon," n.d.)

The impact of global warming on river dolphins in the Amazon. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://fake.com/fake.html

What if......?

There are LOTS of rules. I can't cover them all in class.