Invention - use APA title case and italics

Italics = the thing you hold

In the text, italics means you emphasize mean something. Don't use it for references.

In the references section, italics means "this is the thing you look for in the library"

What do you hold? What do you NOT hold?
The book title not the chapter title - you don't rip it out
The magazine/journal not the article title - you don't rip it out
The newspaper not the article title - you don't rip it out
not software. CDs are not software
The volume number of a journal 4-6 issues are bound together by the library
you don't rip the issue out again

Title Case = a collection of similar work by different people

Note - this has changed from previous rules. Some of the essay examples might be wrong.

1) Title Case for Journal Names

2) No title case for books, chapters, articles, reports, webpages: However, first letter after colon still gets capital

Things that CONTAIN similar texts written by many people get Title Case:

Type Collection Title - Title Case Item Title - No title case
News Newspaper Title Newspaper article title
Book Edited Book (Chapters by many Authors) Book by one author
Journal Journal Title Journal article title
Video Collection YouTube, TED Talks Video title

What about websites?

Are they website versions of something else, or just websites?

News websites

Pretend they are actual newspapers.


Video collections

Are collections

Normal websites (e.g. the Soka University website)

For the article title (the page title)

Organisation websites hosting official reports

In summary

Type Title Case for Containers? Italics for the thing you hold? Example Title
Book Name no Yes Harry Potter and the philosopher's stone
Edited book name yes yes A Book with Chapters by Different Authors
Website article title no Yes
Journal name Yes Yes The Journal of Media Communication, 6(2), 23-34
Journal article title no no Co-operative development in language learning
Newspaper title Yes Yes The Japan Times
News website title Yes (we pretend it's a newspaper) Yes (we pretend it's a newspaper BBC News Online
Magazine title Yes yes The Economist
News/Magazine article title no no

Academic Journal numbers - more details

In the library, there are many magazines, journals, and "kiyou" (university published journals). They often have an English AND a Japanese cover

Single issue journal

The reference for one of the articles on the cover is:

Okano, Y. (2014). The Brussels I regulation recast. The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy, 113(1), 30-53.

Note: volume number "113" in italics. Issue number "(1)" not.

Eventually, the library binds them into single books.

One book = one volume. The issues are now inside.


For most articles, you go to the library to find (and hold) the BOUND BOOK of the VOLUME, not the issue.


In summary

Okano, Y. (2014). The Brussels I regulation recast. The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy, 113(1), 30-53.

(Don't forget the page number)

What about edited books?

Books with many chapters by different people are collections. Title Case.
Books by one author are not collections. No title case
You hold books _italics_
You don't hold chapters no italics

Rowling, J.K. (2006). Harry Potter and the half-blood prince. London: Bloomsbury.

Prentice, M. (2011). MALL testing in the paperless classroom. In E. Forsythe et al. (Eds.), CALL: What’s your Motivation (pp.112-117). Nagoya: JALT CALL SIG.


Look how newspapers are stored in the library.