Step 1: Choose an endangered animal
Browse some animals
- WWF has simple summaries, with description, problems ("threats") and solutions ("WHat WWF is doing"): (link)
- IUCN Red list has a more varied list but be careful - not all of these animals have a good selection of problems or solutions: (link)
Choose ONE animal
- Choose something INTERESTING we DO NOT KNOW (i.e. NOT the Giant Panda)
- Do NOT choose an animal in the example essay (currently Narwhal).
- Choose a SPECIFIC species (i.e. not just "tiger", but "Amur Tiger")
- Choose something "Vulnerable", "Endangered", or "Critically endangered". NOT less threatened, and NOT extinct or extinct in wild.
- Choose something with multiple problems (e.g. hunting AND food AND pollution)
- Choose something with multiple solutions
- e.g. trade laws, special nets, and education
- e.g. 3 different NGOs doing different things
Step 2: Research your animal
Read 3 articles about your animal. Follow the requirements in your syllabus homework for number and type of reference. Start with the WWF page or the IUCN page. YOu can read the wikipedia page in ENglish or Japanese, but it DOES NOT COUNT for your 3 articles, and you CANNOT cite it.
Don't forget to take a note of the references!
Step 3: Read the Template and Examples
Download the materials
- "TEMPLATE for ESSAY OUTLINE.docx"
- "TEMPLATE for ESSAY, docx"
- The example template and essay (about Narwhals)
All files are in the Dropbox folder
- There are five paragraph examples and nine paragraph examples. Choose the right one:
- 9 paragraph = GCP and 2nd year courses
- 5 paragraph = 1st year courses (except GCP)
Step 4: Plan your own essay
Five Paragraph Problem-Solution Essay (SSGB, ECE)
Paragraph A: CAUSE/EFFECT
This is the THIRD paragraph of five, but we will write it first because it is easier
Some common problems include:
- Threat to Habitat (wetlands, forests, mangroves, coastal areas)
- by population increase - people move into animals' areas
- by development of industry/forestry/farms/plantations
- by development of infrastructure (e.g. roads,
- by development for tourism (e.g. coastal hotels, artificial beaches)
- by human usage leading to soil erosion, deforestation, etc
- by climate change, leading to drought, fires, floods, desertification,
- by pollution (oil spills, chemical spills, heavy metals in food chain, air pollution, )
- competition with invasive species
- something that indirectly makes things worse
- conflict (i.e. wars) stopping assistance reaching the area
- Unemployment/Poverty (e.g. which makes people turn to poaching)
- Political Instability
- Smaller world leading to diseases spreading more easily
- for food (Over-fishing, Over-hunting)
- for pet ndustry
- for animal parts (fur, souvenirs, medicine)
Paragraph B: SUMMARY/RESPONSE
This is the FOURTH paragraph of five, but we will write it second
- describe and critically analyse the solutions
- See write a summary-response
- Example solutions from previous essays
- Sustainable Development
- Consumer pressure / Consumer awareness
- Zoo breeding programs keeping in zoo
- Zoo breeding programs returning to wild: (link)
- for the specific animal or animal type
- for the animal type (e.g. saving orangutans)
- for the habitat (e.g. saving forests, which saves orangutans)
- for the general problem (e.g. stopping global warming, which saves forest, which saves orangutans)
- Laws (National or International)
- e.g. a demand side law by Japanese government banning trade in endangered animals
- e.g. a supply-side law by the Indonesian government banning trade in endangered animals
- e.g. an international law, like CITES (link) banning trade in endangered animals
- Monitoring Programs
- Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
- Refuse (i.e. just stop buying it)
- Letter writing campaign
Paragraph C: DESCRIPTION paragraph
This is the SECOND paragraph in the essay
However, it is difficult so we will write it last
- Describe the animal in detail
- See write a description paragraph
- Remember - the animal is experiencing a problem, not causing one
- Be careful about plurals
- You can say "the Amur tiger IS" (the species)
- You can say "Amur TigerS ARE" (all the individuals)
- You CANNOT say "Amur Tigers is" or "the Amur Tiger are"
- Be careful about capitals. Only specific species names get capitals
- Great Panda - panda
- Amur Tiger - this tiger
- Avoid boring definitions. Which of these is boring?
- e.g. "The Amur Tiger is a kind of tiger"
- e.g. "The Amur Tiger is the only member of the big cat family which lives in Kyushu"
- Consider using a partition
- (e.g. "there are 2 kinds of panda - Giant panda and Red Panda - of which the most endangered is..."")
- see write a partition sentence
- Define any unknown word or words with special meanings
Sectional Essay Version (GCP)
Read the five paragraph version first. This is a NINE paragraph version of that
- Description Paragraph
- THREE problem paragraphs in a section with its own thesis statement
- THREE solution paragraphs in a section with its own thesis statement
- Conclusion paragraph in its own section with its own thesis statement
See write a sectional essay
Requirements for Essay
For 5 paragraph version
- minimum 200 words per paragraph,
- minimum five lines per paragraph
- minimum 150 words for the intro and conclusion
- minimum 900 words for the whole essay (200*3+150+150=900 words)
- maximum 1500 words
- minimum two references per body paragraph (total 6 references minimum)
- (at least 50% in English)
For 9 paragraph sectional verrsion (GCP)
See the syllabus.
Background readings and listenings
Short readings and listenings
A) Importance Background and Vocabulary: Biodiversity (2 mins):
BBC Learning English News Extra: (link)
1) Biodiversity is short for: Bio______ Diversity
2) Organisms mentioned: Trees, r__, r__, e_____, b______.
3) Ecosystems mentioned: R____F____, Oceans, & D____
4) Ecosystems are places where forms of life "D__ on e__ o_____"
5) News reports accept "biodiversity is good" because provides:
- Some m______
- Quality of a_ and c____
6) News usually mention threats to biodiversity, including:
- "Habitat Loss" - e.g. when too many T____ cut down
- Industrial A________
- G______ W_____
7) THINK: The question at the end was "How can developing countries protect biodiversity at the same time as they pursue economic growth and reduce poverty?"
Another word for this is "Sustainable Development". For example: Imagine Tokyo needs a new runway at Narita, but to build it you would need to destroy 20 small farms, and an area where a rare frog lives. What would you do?
B) RESPONSE: The Enforcement Problem (6 mins)
BBC World Learning English 6 min talk: (link)
CITES: Convention on the Illegal Trade in Endangered Species
1) How many governments are meeting in Bangkok?
2) Is the problem getting better?
3) Mary Rice says the problem is "enforcement" because effort concentrates on stopping the p_____ but the animal is already d__
the "masterminds" who o_____ and f______ the trade are not caught.
4) How many sharks are killed every year?
5) David Shipman says three things are necessary:
forensic , police c_____ and p______ will.
7) Why are there no photos of the dodo?
C) Laws (357 words):
1.Why were new laws made?
2.Why do people eat rare animals (two reasons).
3.Sometime bears are kept, not killed. Why?
4.Another word for "illegal hunting" is p_______.
5.DISCUSS: Do people in Japan eat/use/hunt rare animals? Are you sure?
D) Sustainable Development
1.What is a pontoon?
2.Which animals are threatened?
3.How does sea grass help the environment?
4.DISCUSS: What will happen to the PEOPLE if the pontoon is NOT built
5.DISCUSS: How can we balance development and endangered animals?
Advanced: Long readings and listenings
Read and outline and think about the questions
A: Conflict with people (1000 words, Lions):
When people and animals are competing for land, who is more important?
A: Helping people too 1: Poachers (13 mins, 1880 words):
B: Bringing animals back 1 (16 mins, 2815 words):
Bonus reading 1 Should we give up? Panda (836 words):
We have limited resources and many endangered animals.
Which should we choose?
Bonus reading 2 UN Report.
This is long, so choose only ONE PART
Part 1 – "What is the Nature of this threat" p77-80 2150 words
Part 2 – "How is it conducted?"p80-82 1700 words
Part 3 "Who are the traffickers" p83-84 750 words
Part 4 – "How is the money handled"p84 300 words
Part 5 – "How big is the flow " p84-86 700 words
Box "Illegal wildlife trafficking in the Pacific"p85 530 words