Resources - list of useful situations and functions

Situations combine a lot of focuses

For example, a restaurant situation combines:

Here is a list of common situations and functions


Official: Giving name, age, address, names of relatives and friends, occupation, etc.

Friendly: asking for and giving personal details

introducing yourself and other people

asking for and giving information about routines and habits

talking about likes and dislikes (esp. hobbies/sports)

asking questions


asking for and giving travel information

asking for and giving simple information about places

asking the way and giving directions (How do I get to...turn left)

giving position (It's on the left next to)

buying and selling things (costs and amounts)


understanding and completing forms(personal/education/job)

talking about food and ordering meals

understanding simple signs and notices

Numbers, Times, Dates, Quantities, saying which one

talking about quantities (some, a few, a lot of, all)
talking about frequency (often, never, twice a day, every)
asking and giving the time/day/date (It's 7pm. It's happening on Tuesday 3rd)
talking about specific times (now, last week)
talking about non specific times (already, just, yet)
asking and giving numbers, prices (123, $32 )
saying which one you mean (this that these those, that one, etc)

Language control

asking for repetition and clarification

asking for and giving the spelling and meaning of words

checking on meaning and intention

helping others to express their ideas

interrupting a conversation

re-stating what has been said

Requesting, Offering, Suggesting, Refusing, Accepting

asking for permission (+ saying yes/no politely)
making requests (+ saying yes/no politely)
asking/telling people to do something (+ saying yes/no politely)
talking about obligation (have to, must, should, need to )
expressing needs and wants (+ saying yes/no politely)
saying thanks (+you're welcome)
giving invitations (+ saying yes/no politely)
making apologies (+ saying "It's OK")
making offers (+ saying yes/no politely)

making suggestions

Giving instructions and Advice

giving/following simple instructions

making suggestions

giving advice

giving warnings

understanding prohibitions (No entry, you can't X here)

identifying and describing accommodation (houses, flats, rooms, furniture, etc.)

Conversations and discussions


paying compliments

talking about feelings

telling a story

expressing opinions and making choices

giving reasons

agreeing and disagreeing with people


describing things

describing people

Talking about time

talking about the past

talking about what people are doing now

talking about future plans

talking about future situations

Other (mostly more grammar-y)

saying how sure you are (I think, maybe, perhaps, I might be wrong but...)
talking about possibility (maybe, perhaps, he might)
expressing (lack of) obligation (have to, must, don't have to
expressing purpose, cause and result (because, and so)
comparing things (it's bigger / it's much cheaper)
reporting what people say
talking about ability (I can/can't/could/couldn't)
describing sequences (first, next, then, after that)
talking about "the most" (the biggest, the most interesting)
talking about possession (my, your, his, her, ‘s)
talking about personal possessions
talking about degree (very, quite, a bit)
talking about uncertain subjects (someone, anyone, everyone)