Style - follow academic conventions

Malc Prentice

Some rules for formal academic writing. Not all of them apply in all majors.

For example, Engineering is usually stricter on using "I" than Education.

Do not use "I"

Do not use "you" or "we"

Unless you mean EVERYONE:

"We did a survey" bad, because "we" = your research team
"We must protect the planet" OK, because "we" = all humans
"After that, you should look at" bad, because "you" means the reader
"When you study English, you also learn culture" OK, because "you" means all students

It's safer just to avoid "we" and "you" completely. Use passive, third person, "it is"

Do not use digits under 10

However

Do not use abbreviations (e.g. "don't" = do not)

Do not use opinion language

If you think something is true, PROVE it using evidence. Do not use these about your own reasons and research:

Just give the facts, not your attitude to them.

It is your READERS job to decide if the idea is clear or amazing. It is your job to describe it well enough that they can see that for themselves. Be very careful about words like these:

See this article: (link)

No rhetorical questions ("Do you know the red panda?")