What is Cohesion?
Cohesion is when you use special English phrases to tell me:
- Where I am in the essay outline ("Signposting")
- e.g. "The first problem is", "As the previous noted,"
- See use signposting for more
- What each sentence does ("Signalling")
This page is about signalling:
|This an example sentence ||"For example, ..."|
|This is another example ||"A second example of this would be..."|
|This an effect ||"This is because..."|
|This a disagreeing response ||"However, ..."|
|THis is an agreeing response ||"In fact, ..."|
|This a another supporting point ||"Additionally, ..."|
|This is a summary ||"In summary, ..."|
|This is a new reason on same topic ||"Another reason X is a problem is that"|
Basics: So, Or, But, Because, And
You could write an essay with just these (a boring one though).
- cats, so
- cats, and
- cats, but
- cats, or
Use them correctly! They JOIN sentences. Never do this:
Because works both ways, but be careful of the order
- Because X, Y.
- Y, because X.
Giving an example (alternatives to "for example")
- For example, X
- X, for example Y, Z
- An example of this is X
- X such as Y
- For instance, X
- As an example, X.
- One example of this is X
- Namely, X.
- Chiefly, X
Adding another point: (alternatives to "Also")
- In addition, X.
- Additionally, X
- Moreover, X.
- What is more, X.
- Furthermore, X.
- Another X is.
- Also, X
Adding a detail to a point
- In fact,
- To be specific, X.
- In particular, X
Adding a clarification
- In other words
- Another way of understanding this is
- To put it differently
- To put it another way
- That is to say
- To repeat,
Giving a reason (alternatives to "so")
|Around ||10% ||of Y are Z.|
|More than ||7000 ||of Y are not Z.|
|Less than ||five ||of those Y are Z.|
|Approximately ||half ||Ys are Z.|
|Up to ||one third ||of Y could be Z.|
- It is important to note that
- The key point is that
- It must be remembered that
- One point often forgotten is that
Signal Doubt or disagreement
Signal a Summary (Alternatives to "In summary")
- To summarize
- To sum up
- In summary,
- In summary, we have learned that X
- In short
- In brief
Summaries that include the opposite viewpoint
- While it is true that A, it is also important to note that B.
Summary for time order paragraph
- In summary, the three stages are A, then B, and finally C. (process)
Summary for Solution paragraph
In summary, there are three possible solutions - A, B, and C -
- of which only C is effective.
- all of which work.
- however none of these work.
- of which only A and B are effective.
- of which only the first is effective.
- of which only the second is effective.
- of which only the last is effective.
Not in academic essays
Adding a sad/happy/unusual point
- All things considered,
- All in all,
- To recap