What are the rules for using keywords?
1) Use the right word type
Keywords need to be used again later, and need to be easy to fit into other sentences.
Some word types don't work easily this way.
These do not work:
Adjectives don't work:
Normal verbs don't work:
These are best:
|Nouns ||"Secondly, pollution"|
|Noun phrases ||"Secondly, lack of pollution"|
These usually work:
|ING verbs ||"Secondly, participating"|
|ING verb phrases ||"Secondly, increasing participation"|
|question word phrases ||"Secondly, how to increase participation"|
If in doubt:
- just use nounsor a short (2-4 word) phrase that ends in a noun
- "pollution, child labour, and conflict"
- "harmful air pollution, widespread child labour, and conflict between religious groups"
2) Keywords MUST MATCH
Don't mix the types!
- OK: preparation, cooking, and decoration.
- OK: preparing, cooking, and decorating.
- OK: prepare, cook and decorate.
- OK: how to prepare, how to cook, and how to decorate
- NO: how to prepare, cooking, and decoration
3) Use list rules
See use lists.
Be careful with commas and "and"
- 1, 2, 3, and 4.
- 1, 2, 3, 4.
When do I use keyword rules?
In an essay
Link your thesis statement, your paragraphs, and your conclusion with keywords
See use cohesion
- "This essay first looks at X in terms of A, B, and C"
- "This paragraph describes A"
- "This paragraph outlines B"
- "This paragraph covers C"
- "This essay looked at X. In summary A, B, C."
Your Thesis statement needs one keyword per BODY PARAGRAPH
- See write an introduction thesis statement
- e.g. "This essay....description....problem....solution"
- e.g. "This paragraph...similarities...differences"
- e.g. "This paragraph looks at three problems penguins are facing: global warming, poaching, and a lack of onigiri"
- A 5 para essay needs 3 keywords
- Some teachers call Keywords for paragraphs "Controlling aspects" or "Controlling ideas"
- Note that if you need to write a sectional essay, the rules are slightly different
Your Topic Sentence needs one keyword for each IDEA.
See write a paragraph topic sentence
- "This paragraph looks at three problems Borneo Orangutans face: deforestation, climate change, and forest fires"
- "This paragraph looks at three problems paper production causes - deforestation, climate change, and forest fires"
See use lists
- Any time you make a list, follow the keyword rules
- "There are three kinds of X: A, B, and C."