Style - write a primary research report

Malc Prentice

Write a research report

Introduction and Literature section

Intro basically as with a normal essay.

See write an introduction - overview

Your Lit Review is basically a Summary-Response

See write a summary-response

Some useful language for research-style lit reviews

Summarizing the trend of multiple sources

It has been proposed that - - - - > ~と対峙して、~と異なって

It has been proposed that reading speed also contributes to comprehension

By Yukiko S.

tend to X - - - - > Xする傾向がある

Past research has tended to focus on the social dimension...

By Ai K

attempt to X === Xを試みる

Some studies have attempted to extend the idea by adding new components...

By Ai K

Summarizing Conclusions from Sources

A has contributed to our understanding of B - - - - > Aが、我々のBへの理解に役立った。

This has contributed to our understanding of the processes of reading

By Moe M.

These results suggest X

The results of this study suggested Y - - - - > Xの結果Yが示された

The results of this study suggested a relationship between TOEIC scores and reading speed.

By Kurumi H.

Tips for thesis level intro

Your "keyword outline" could be a paragraph

Next, Chapter 2 reviews the existing literature, identifying… Then Chapter 3 describes the research methodology and Chapter 4 summarizes the results. Finally Chapter 5 discusses how X applies to Y. The remainder of this first chapter clarifies X, introduces Y and describes Z

Methods section

Methods is a recipe, just like a recipe for okonomiyaki.

I MUST be able to replicate (copy) what you did from the description.

If you give me a recipe for okonomiyaki, but forget the cabbage, what happens?)

Common sections

3.1 Research Framework

3.2 Participants and Context

Include any ethical problems:

3.3 Materials

3.4 Procedure

3.5 Analysis

Language and Style in "Method"

1) Call them "participants", not "subjects"

2) Use past tense, unless it is a general statement that is still true

Results section

Results are numbers or words

DO give enough explanation for readers to understand what they are looking at.
DO point out interesting features of hard-to-understand graphs, tables
DO NOT interpret, give theories or discussion. Leave these for Chapter 5 (Discussion).

Useful language

Giving sample sizes

Giving Proportions


has some extra sections, but still the same as normal disucssion


Use subheadings only if discussion is long.

0) Topic Sentence for Discussion

1) Summary of results:

2) Implications

3) Weaknesses of the research

in hindsight - - - - > あと知恵で考えると

In hindsight this project had a number of weaknesses, which are discussed below:

By Kengo A.

It was unfortunate that~ - - - - > 残念だった事は~だ

It was unfortunate that so few participants completed the required tasks.

By Yukiko

4) Future Research

5) Conclusion


Only if your discussion is really long (4 pages), to tie everything together. If it is only one paragraph, you don't need a conclusion section.


End matter

Research reports and dissertations sometimes have extra things after the References.


1) Summaries

In general

2) Links