Write a research report
Introduction and Literature section
Intro basically as with a normal essay.
See write an introduction - overview
Your Lit Review is basically a Summary-Response
See write a summary-response
Some useful language for research-style lit reviews
Summarizing the trend of multiple sources
It has been proposed that - - - - > ～と対峙して、～と異なって
It has been proposed that reading speed also contributes to comprehension
By Yukiko S.
tend to X - - - - > Xする傾向がある
Past research has tended to focus on the social dimension...
By Ai K
attempt to X === Xを試みる
Some studies have attempted to extend the idea by adding new components...
By Ai K
Summarizing Conclusions from Sources
A has contributed to our understanding of B - - - - > Aが、我々のＢへの理解に役立った。
This has contributed to our understanding of the processes of reading
By Moe M.
These results suggest X
The results of this study suggested Y - - - - > Xの結果Yが示された
The results of this study suggested a relationship between TOEIC scores and reading speed.
By Kurumi H.
Tips for thesis level intro
Your "keyword outline" could be a paragraph
Next, Chapter 2 reviews the existing literature, identifying… Then Chapter 3 describes the research methodology and Chapter 4 summarizes the results. Finally Chapter 5 discusses how X applies to Y. The remainder of this first chapter clarifies X, introduces Y and describes Z
Methods is a recipe, just like a recipe for okonomiyaki.
I MUST be able to replicate (copy) what you did from the description.
If you give me a recipe for okonomiyaki, but forget the cabbage, what happens?)
- First list your ingredients
- (20 students, 3 eggs, geiger counter, a questionnaire and some flour)
- Then describe what you did, step by step
3.1 Research Framework
- Qualitative? Quantitative? Case study? Action Research
- Experimental? Descriptive?
- Exploratory? Confirming?
- Is the aim generalisation or deep description?
3.2 Participants and Context
- If you had subjects, who were the subjects?
- Age, Gender, Major, Level, Location
- Give as much detail as possible without breaking anonymity
- Why did you choose these specific people? ("Sampling")
- Did any of the participants drop out?
Include any ethical problems:
- How did you make sure the participants were anonymous
- How did you avoid embarassing or insulting anyone?
- Is there a chance your results will harm anyone?
- What tool did you choose for data collection? Why? (e.g. why questionnaire not interview. Why iPhone not Android?)
- HOW did you MAKE your materials?
- e.g. Did you pilot it? (try it out before) What changes did you make?
- Short materials (e.g. a 6 question interview outline, a list) goes here.
- Long materials (e.g. a 6 page questionnaire) goes in an appendix.
- How did you USE your materials, step by step?
- (first then next but then after that finally)
- What method did you use?
- Why did you analyse it that way?
Language and Style in "Method"
1) Call them "participants", not "subjects"
2) Use past tense, unless it is a general statement that is still true
- "The participants WERE interviewed after class"
- "The participants WERE University students"
- "Interviews ARE useful for extracting information"
Results are numbers or words
- Numbers: graphs / charts / tables /diagrams
- Words: categories /summaries / codes / lists / Quotes from interview / diary /transcript
|DO ||give enough explanation for readers to understand what they are looking at.|
|DO ||point out interesting features of hard-to-understand graphs, tables|
|DO NOT ||interpret, give theories or discussion. Leave these for Chapter 5 (Discussion).|
- Describe results using present tense - "This table shows"
- Describe finished actions using past tense - "50% of students enjoyed reading"
- Use APA style for numbers
- One two three four five six seven eight nine ten
- 11 12 13 14 15 ….
- Do not start a sentence with a number
"25% of ....."
- "Around 25% of ....."
- "Exactly 25% of ....."
Giving sample sizes
- We interviewed 250 Japanese undergraduate English majors.
- Subjects were Japanese undergraduate English majors (n=250)
- Of the 200, 50 also studied Korean
- Around 25% also studied Korean
- One quarter also studied Korean
- Almost all studied a third language.
has some extra sections, but still the same as normal disucssion
Use subheadings only if discussion is long.
0) Topic Sentence for Discussion
- As with normal essay, this is your thesis statement ( or for experimental research, your research question) in other words.
- Remember to write "This project aimed to discover" or "This experimental report focused on"
- DOn't write "essay" by mistake this is not an essay
- Past tense
1) Summary of results:
- What was the answer to your research question?
- In PRESENT TENSE or PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
- No new data or references, unless to help understand what you have already said.
- What the results mean for readers?
- What should they DO?
- Was anything else interesting?
3) Weaknesses of the research
- Did anything go wrong?
- How did you respond to that goes in METHODS, not here
- What you should do next time to avoid it goes here.
- How that impacts your confidence in your conclusions goes here.
in hindsight - - - - > あと知恵で考えると
In hindsight this project had a number of weaknesses, which are discussed below:
By Kengo A.
It was unfortunate that~ - - - - > 残念だった事は～だ
It was unfortunate that so few participants completed the required tasks.
4) Future Research
- What should you (or someone) study next?
Only if your discussion is really long (4 pages), to tie everything together. If it is only one paragraph, you don't need a conclusion section.
- Use the correct style
- Keep it in alphabetical order
Research reports and dissertations sometimes have extra things after the References.
- Raw data
- extra tables
- copies of your research materials
- copies of your data collection materials, if they are text, like a questionnaire
- Diagrams that didn't fit in the text
- DO summarzie your intro/lit review section, and your Results section
- DO NOT summarize your methods section or your discussion
- Link in a very formally structured research report is probably not necessary. Everyone knows what comes after the Results - it's always the Discussion. So there is no need to say "The next section discusses..."