Alba English

Materials for Class

Invention - Cite Brackets Style

Basics of Brackets style

Type Content Example
A book name and year (Suzuki, 2015)
A newspaper article name, year, month day (Suzuki, 2015, April 2)
A TED Talk name, year, month (Suzuki, 2015, April)
No date? use n.d. (Suzuki, n.d.)
No author? use the title (“Title,” 2015)
No title or date? use title+n.d. (“Title,” n.d.)
No author, Japanese title? use romaji (“Romaji no daimei,” 2015)
No author or date? Title + n.d. (“Title,” n.d.)
2 authors? use “&” (Suzuki & Jones, 2015)
3+ authors? use “et al.,” (Suzuki et al., 2015)
2+ sources use semicolon (;) (Tanaka, 2003; Suzuki, 2015)
same name/year a b (Suzuki, 2015a) … (Suzuki, 2015b).
Same no date? -a, -b (Suzuki, n.d.-a) … (Suzuki, n.d.-b).
“Direct quote”? use page number “I have a dream” (King, 2015, p.23)

Common mistakes

Citation Verb Alternatives

Bored of “said”?

Choose based on your field (Brexina, 2012)

Choose based on confidence

These verbs have more specific meaning:

* Agree: agreed, confirmed
* Disagree: disagreed, rejected, replied, contradicted, responded, questioned, challenged, answered
* Questions: asked, wondered, questioned whether
* Suggestions: suggested, advised, proposed, recommended
* Predictions: predicted, speculated, warned that X will Y
* Admit Problems: admitted, acknowledged * These verbs say what the author did
* highlighted the fact that
* made the case that  
* presented evidence that 

Common mistakes